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Articles of interest Upper Limb Interventions

Keeping families up to date with the research behind our upper limb protocols

Araneda et al. (2020) BMC Neurology, Early HABIT Protocol of changes induced by early Hand-Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy Including Lower Extremities (e-HABIT-ILE) in pre-school children with bilateral cerebral palsy: a multisite randomized controlled trial

Boyd RN, Ziviani J, Sakzewski L, et al REACH: study protocol of a randomised trial of rehabilitation very early in congenital hemiplegia BMJ Open 2017;7:e017204. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017204

Cincinatti Childrens: 2014 Pediatric modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT/BIT) Team, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center: Evidence-based clinical care guideline Pediatric modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT) plus Bimanual Training (BIT), / Pediatric modified Constraint Induced Movement Therapy (mCIMT) plus Bimanual Training (BIT).htm, Guideline 34, pages 1- 21.

Jaspers E, Byblow WD, Feys H and Wenderoth N (2016) The Corticospinal Tract: A Biomarker to Categorize Upper Limb Functional Potential in Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Front. Pediatr. 3:112. doi: 10.3389/fped.2015.00112

Delobel-Ayoub M, Arnaud C, White-Koning M, Casper C, Pierrat V, Garel M, Burguet A, Roze JC, Matis J, Picaud JC, Kaminski M, Larroque B; EPIPAGE Study Group. Behavioral problems and cognitive performance at 5 years of age after very preterm birth: the EPIPAGE Study. Pediatrics. 2009 Jun;123(6):1485-92. doi: 10.1542/peds.2008-1216. PMID: 19482758.

Delobel, Malika & Kaminski, Monique & Marret, Stéphane & Burguet, Antoine & Marchand, Laetitia & N'Guyen, Sylvie & Matis, Jacqueline & Thiriez, Gérard & Fresson, Jeanne & Arnaud, Catherine & Poher, Martine & Larroque, Béatrice. (2006). Behavioral outcome at 3 years of age in very preterm infants: The EPIPAGE study. Pediatrics. 117. 1996-2005. 10.1542/peds.2005-2310.

RCOT Occupational therapy in neonatal services and early intervention, Practice guideline, 2017

Eliasson AC, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Gordon AM, Feys H, Klingels K, Aarts PB, Rameckers E, Autti-Rämö I, Hoare B; European network for Health Technology Assessment (EUnetHTA). Guidelines for future research in constraint-induced movement therapy for children with unilateral cerebral palsy: an expert consensus. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014 Feb;56(2):125-37. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.12273. PMID: 24266735.

Eliasson AC, Nordstrand L, Ek L, Lennartsson F, Sjöstrand L, Tedroff K, Krumlinde-Sundholm L. The effectiveness of Baby-CIMT in infants younger than 12 months with clinical signs of unilateral-cerebral palsy; an explorative study with randomized design. Res Dev Disabil. 2018 Jan;72:191-201. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2017.11.006. Epub 2017 Nov 23. PMID: 29175749.

Eliasson, A.‐C. and Holmefur, M. (2015), The influence of early modified constraint‐induced movement therapy training on the longitudinal development of hand function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Dev Med Child Neurol, 57: 89-94.

Gordon AM, Schneider JA, Chinnan A, Charles JR. Efficacy of a hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy (HABIT) in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized control trial. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007 Nov;49(11):830-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2007.00830.x. PMID: 17979861.

From <>

Hoare, Brian & Imms, Christine & Carey, Leeanne & Wasiak, Jason. (2007). Constraint-induced movement therapy in the treatment of the upper limb in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: A Cochrane systematic review. Clinical rehabilitation. 21. 675-85. 10.1177/0269215507080783.

Hoare, B., Imms, C., Villanueva, E., Rawicki, H.B., Matyas, T. and Carey, L. (2013), Intensive therapy following upper limb botulinum toxin A injection in young children with unilateral cerebral palsy: a randomized trial. Dev Med Child Neurol, 55:238-247.

Hoare, Brian & Wallen, Margaret & Thorley, Megan & Jackman, Michelle & Carey, Leeanne & Imms, Christine. (2019). Constraint-induced movement therapy in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (Review). Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). 4.

Jackman, Michelle & Lannin, Natasha & Galea, Claire & Sakzewski, Leanne & Miller, Laura & Novak, Iona. (2020). What is the threshold dose of upper limb training for children with cerebral palsy to improve function? A systematic review. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 67. 10.1111/1440-1630.12666.

Muratori, Lisa & Lamberg, Eric & Quinn, Lori & Duff, Susan. (2013). Applying Principles of Motor Learning and Control to Upper Extremity Rehabilitation. Journal of hand therapy : official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists. 26. 94-103. 10.1016/j.jht.2012.12.007.

Morgan, C., Novak, I., Dale, R., & Badawi, N. (2015). Optimising motor learning in infants at high risk of cerebral palsy: a pilot study. BMC Pediatrics, 15.

Nordstrand, L., Eliasson, A.‐C. and Holmefur, M. (2016), Longitudinal development of hand function in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy aged 18 months to 12 years. Dev Med Child Neurol, 58: 1042-1048.

Staudt, M. (2017), Should mirror movements modify therapeutic strategies for unilateral spastic cerebral palsy?. Dev Med Child Neurol, 59: 114-115.

Spencer-Smith MM, Spittle AJ, Doyle LW, Lee KJ, Lorefice L, Suetin A, Pascoe L, Anderson PJ. Long-term benefits of home-based preventive care for preterm infants: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2012 Dec;130(6):1094-101. doi: 10.1542/peds.2012-0426. Epub 2012 Nov 5. PMID: 23129084.

Sakzewski, Leanne & Gordon, Andrew & Eliasson, Ann-Christin. (2014). The State of the Evidence for Intensive Upper Limb Therapy Approaches for Children With Unilateral Cerebral Palsy. Journal of child neurology. 29. 10.1177/0883073814533150.

Taub, Edward & Ramey, Sharon & Deluca, Stephanie & Echols, Karen. (2004). Efficacy of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children With Cerebral Palsy With Asymmetric Motor Impairment. Pediatrics. 113. 305-12. 10.1542/peds.113.2.305.

Taub, Edward & Griffin, Angi & Nick, Jennifer & Gammons, Kristin & Uswatte, Gitendra & Law, Charles. (2007). Pediatric CI therapy for stroke-induced hemiparesis in young children. Developmental neurorehabilitation. 10. 3-18. 10.1080/13638490601151836.


Imms C, Cowan R, Ertekin E, Klein GL, Galvin J. Eight weeks of occupational therapy home programme, compared to no programme, resulted in improved achievement of child and family-selected goals by children with cerebral palsy. Aust Occup Ther J. 2010 Dec;57(6):444-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1630.2010.00907.x. PMID: 21091712.

Milton YM, Dunford C, Newby KV. Occupational therapy home programmes for children with cerebral palsy: A national survey of United Kingdom paediatric occupational therapy practice. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2019;82(7):443-451.

Novak I, Cusick A, Lannin N. Occupational therapy home programs for cerebral palsy: double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2009 Oct;124(4):e606-14. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-0288. Epub 2009 Sep 21. PMID: 19770175.

Wallen M, Ziviani J, Naylor O, Evans R, Novak I, Herbert RD. Modified constraint-induced therapy for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: a randomized trial. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011 Dec;53(12):1091-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2011.04086.x. Epub 2011 Sep 16. PMID: 21923854.

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